Volume / Issue
Journal of architecture and plannin Volume1, 3
Article The Efficiency and Equity of the Housing- Distribution within the Market: The Esablishment of a Posi
Author Chich-Ping Hu

Housing, with the characteristics of rival as well as excludability, is a specific economic goods, Theoretically, housing market could allocate the housing to consumers efficiently, As households having different preferences and abilities on housing trades between buyers and sellers within the non- complete- competition market should be made by auction. Efficiency and equity are the criterion to evaluate the performance of government activities. On the basis of existing situation, policy is blamed for lack of efficiency and equity. Price, within the market mechanism plays the role of invisible hand to allocate goods between buyers and sellers. The higher capability of the household to consume, the more satisfaction gained from housing services. Such pattern of allocation from market will use resources efficiently, but not always equitably. However, how to interpret this issue? The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to establish a positive model, evaluating the performance of efficiency and equity of housing market, of performance index on the distribution in the housing market from the empirical study. This paper, on the basis of market mechanism, attempts to establish a housing distribution model to interpret the performance on efficiently as well as equity sample. The model can be divided into threefold components – first, buyer's ceiling price, secondly, seller' s floor price, and thirdly, household' s preference. Theoretically, housing distribution results from the buyer's bidding power and the seller's willingness under the limitation of household's preference. The positive model of this paper is used to evaluate the performance on efficiency and equity. And by comparing the difference between government activities and market allocation, the result will be the consult-base of intervention further. The result of the positive model shows that, applied to this paper, the efficiency is a more dominant index than equity on the basis of market mechanism. Apparently, the housing distribution within market is more efficient than equitable, and the equitable housing distribution should be ensured by the government intervention.

Keywords Housing filtering, Pareto efficiency, Equity, Floor price, Ceiling price
Pages pp.192 - 207

Charpin,Jr. F. S., 1965, A MODEL for Simulating Residential Development, Journal of the American Institute of Planner,31:120-125.

Danziger, S.,Robert,H. and Robert,P., 1981, How Income Transfer Programs Affect Work, Saving, and the Income Distribution:A Critial Review, Journal of Economic Literature,19:957-1028.

Fisher,E. M. and Winnick,L.B., 1951, A Reformulation of the Filtering Concept, Journal of Social Jssues,7:47-85.

Goodall, B., 1972, The Economics of Urban Areas, New York:Pergamon Press.

Harvey, D., 1973, Social Justice and the City, London: Edward Arnold.

Herbert,J. and Stevens,B.J., 1960, A Model for the Distribution of Residental Activities in Urban Areas, Journal of Regional Science,2:21-36.

Hill, D. M., 1965, A Growth Allocation for the Boston Region, Journal of the American Institute of Planner,31:111-120.

Kuhn, H. and Tucker, A, 1953, Contributions to the Theory of Games, New York:Princeton University Press.

Lowry, I S., 1960, Filtering and Housing Standards, Land Economics,36:362-370.

Lowry, I S., 1972, Seven Models of Urban Development :A Structural Comparison, in Edel, M. and Rothenberg, J., Reading in Urban Economics, New York: The Macmillan Company.

Ng,Y. K., 1983, Welfare Economics- Introduction and Development of Basic Concepts, London: Macmillan Publishers LTD..

Ratcliff,R. U., 1949, Urban Land Economics, New York:MaGraw-Hill.

Raws,J., 1969, A Theory of Justice, Cambridge,Mass, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Rescher, N., 1966, Distributive Justice A Constructive Critique of the Utilitarian Theory of Distribution,, Indianapolis:Bobbs-Merrill.

Rivlin, A. M., 1975, Income Distribution- Can Economists Help?, American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 65:1-15.

Runciman, W.G., 1966, Relative Deprivation and Social Justice: A study of Attitudes to Social Inequality in Twentieth-Century England, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Walzer, M., 1983, Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality, United Kingdom :Martin Robertson and Company Ltd.


Journal of architecture and plannin Volume1, 3
Article Study on the Environment of Community Safety: Using A.H.P Method in Community Quality Evaluation
Author Shih-Hsiung Chou,Ming-Su Cheng,Hung-Chih Shih

Community safety was always associated with the maintenance of privacy and the security of individual houses. Along with the transformation in urban patterns and life styles, the community size has expanded, open space has increased and the types of habitant have also become more complex. All these changes have widen the meaning of community safety from the security of individual houses to the planning of a safe community environment. This paper has approached the subject from aspects of planning, facility, management, crime prevention and environment sanitation. By adopting the Analytic Hierarchy Process (A.H.P.), professionals are invited to list a set of criteria for assessing a safe community environment. The important purpose of the A.H.P. method is to gain the comparative weight of each criterion in safety evaluation system. Through this weighted evaluation system, we can get the diagnosis of a community safety from experts.

Keywords Community Safety
Pages pp.244 - 257

HE,HO,MING-CHINHUANG, TING-KUO, 1997, Urban disaster prevention planning operation research, Architure and Building Research Institute, Ministy of the Interior.

SHIH,HUNG-CHIHCHIEH, HUNG-NIEN, 1996, Community Environmental Quality Assessment Manual real, Architure and Building Research Institute, Ministy of the Interior Research Project.

HSU,CHUN-CHIN, 1985, America's Community Crime Prevention: Concept and Plan, Community Development Quarterly pp.94-97.

YANG,SHIH-LUNG, 1955, The use of environmental design in crime prevention.

YANG,YING-HUNG, 1998, A STUDY OF SPATIAL PLANNING OF CAMPUS SAFETY, Master thesis, Institute of Urban Planning, NationalCHENG,KUNG University.

Gumming,N., 1992, Security:A guide to security system design, equipment selection, and installation, Butterworth-Heinemann.

Fisher,B. and Nasar, J., 1992, Fear of crime in relation to three exterior site features: Prospect rcfuge and escape, Environment and Behavior,24(1): 35-65.

Newman,O, 1978, Defensible space Crime prevention through urban design, Collier Books.

Wekerle,G. R. and Whitzman, C., 1995, Safe cities: Guidelines for planning design and management, Van Nostrand Reinhold.


Journal of architecture and plannin Volume1, 3
Article A study on the Cluster Phenomenon of Stores in Center Business District -- a Case Study in Tainan ce
Author Kan-Chung Huang,Kuang-Yih Yeh

 Traditionally, the strategy of selecting the location of a retail store is based on the distance with a competitor to avoid the overlapping of business and to assure the basic market share of the store in the area. But, in reverse, it's easy to be found that same type of stores are neighboring each other in the downtown area of a big city. This research names this kind of commercial phenomenon as "clustering" . Due there are too much stores to get together in downtown-even on the same street, the same types of stores must overlap with each other undoubtedly. It shows that the traditional theory of selecting the stores location is completely improper to the real situation happened in downtown area. Therefore, it is valuable to probe into all these same type of stores in gathering. Why do these same type of stores get together closely, and how can they still get the profits. This study takes Tainan's downtown as an instance. We investigated along the main commercial streets to check the professions of the stores there. Then, by using the results after the investigation, we can analyze the occupational structure of the stores on the main streets and their characteristics. We select the most presented stores as research samples. Through the use of random probability on stores distribution, we can identify whether selected type of stores cluster or not. At Tainan's downtown, we take three kinds professions as samples-wedding garment stores, book stores, and computer stores. By using our analysis, we can find out the relationship between management efficiency and the intensity of same type of stores in gathering.

Keywords Trading area, Clustering, Center business district, Discriminant analysis
Pages pp.228-243

CHEN,KUN-HUNG, 1990, Formation of consumer spatial structure of Taipei and its recommendations, PHD thesis ,Department of Civil Engineering,National Taiwan University.

YEH,KUANG-YI,I, 1992, Different business kinds of shops relations between the neighboring.

1996, Targeting business district - a large open food shop survey.

Niedercorn,J.H. and B. V. Bechdolt, Jr,, 1969, An Economic derivation of the Gravity Laws of Spatial Interaction, Journal of Regional Science, Vol.9 ,No.2,P.273-282.

Golob ,T.,R. Gustafson and M. Bechmann, 1973, AN Economic Utility Approach to Spatial Interaction,, Papers of the Regional Science Association, vol.30,P.159-182.


Journal of architecture and plannin Volume1, 3
Article A Study of Architectural Layout Design by Artificial Neural Network Method
Author Kao-Chung Wen
 Existing method of design of computation utilize on a set of pre-decomposed design structures, and require knowledge engineers as human translators between designs and computer. To extend the problem solving abilities and to avoid the knowledge acquisition bottleneck of current design computation tools, systems allowing the problem-solver to learn form experience are necessary. Often designers are not aware subconscious levels. One possibility of knowledge acquisition is to learn form design examples by designers. The retrieved case my either match the current situation exactly or need modification. This leads to the fundamental assumptions of this thesis that applying case-based reasoning in a manageable structure, this research intends to use an artificial neural networks (ANN) approach to solve CBR problems in architectural layout design. The organization of this research is corresponding to the different steps of this research. First, the problem statement of this research is made and current developments of design computation are discussed. Secondly, a conceptual model of case-based reasoning in layout design using ANN is proposed. Thirdly, a computer system CBRANN is developed to demonstrate different approaches of proposed model. Finally, conclusions are made, and future extensions of this research are described. The results show that applying artificial neural networks on case-based reasoning in design is a feasible approach for building knowledge-based design systems in architecture.
Keywords Architectural Layout Design, Case-based Reasoning, Artificial Neural Network, Computer-aided Design.
Pages pp.208 - 226

WANG,MING-HENG, 1994, Spatial concept of the structure and the formation of different methods of design capacity for space study, National Science Council Research Project (NSC82-011-S-006-005).

LIN,SHENG-FU, 1993, Introduction to neural networks and pattern recognition.

WEN,KUO-CHUNG, 1995, Case study design concept of the computer simulation.

Chen,C.C., 1991, Analogical and Inductive Reasoning in Architectural Design Computation, A dissertation in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich.

Coyne,R.D., 1990, Design Reasoning Without Explanations, AI Magazine,11(4):72-80.

Coyne,R.D.,Newton, S., Sudweeks, F.,, 1993, A Connectionist View of Creative Design Reasonting,in Gero,J. S., Maher, M.L.ed., Modeling Creativity and Knowledge-Based Creative Design,London Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,pp.177-209.

Coyne, R.D., Roseman, M.A., A.D.,Balachandran, M., Gero, J.S.,, 1990, Knowledge-based Design System, Addison-Wesley,USA,ISBN 0-201-0381-8.

Hinton, Geoffrey I., 1990, Connectionist Learning Procedures,in Kodratoff, Yves., Michalski, Ryszard S. ed., Machine Learning,Vol.3, Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo ,CA.,pp556-610.

Liu, Yu-Tung, 1993, A Connectionist Approach to Shape Recognition and Transformation, in U. Flemming ,S. Van Wok.(Eds), CAAD futures'93,pp19-37.

Mitchell, Willam J., 1993, A Computational view of Design Creativity,in Gero, J.S., Maher, M.L. ed.,, Modeling Creativity and Knowledge-Based Creative Design,London Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,pp.25-42.

Muller B., Reinhardt J.,, 1990, Neural Networks ,, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , Germany,ISBN 3-540-52380-4.


Journal of architecture and plannin Volume1, 3
Article A Study of the Effect of Neighborhood Park on the Adjacent Real Estates: Case of Hsinchu
Author Hung-Nien Hsieh,Tai-Shan Hu,Ze-En Shao

Over the past experience of Taiwan's urban development, the importance of park was always ignored especially in the urban park investment. Those are major accounts for the coming of bad urban environment. However, by the raise of the economic development and the national income, people are not only for the building of any infrastructures, but also pay great attention to the parks, the green places and the urban open spaces. Therefore, the rating of the value of real estates would be decided not only the structural condition and the maintenance of a building, but the good neighborhood as well. In the light of the above, the theme of this research is the design brief, and how it operates as a study tool to fulfill the investigation of substance environment based on the patterns of the buildings nearby the urban park, and the related land value. The work was aimed at gaining step-change improvements in the value that urban parks obtain from its external effects.

Keywords Neighborhood park, Adjacent real estates
Pages pp.258 - 271

HSIN,WAN-CHIAO, 1978, A Study of Land for economic development and influence of social welfare, Council for Economic Planning and Development.

HUANG,SHU-TZU, 1982, Urban Neighborhood Park District Behavior- A Case Study of Da-An District in Taipei City, Institute of Urban Planning ,National Chung Hsing University.

KUO,FEI-YU, 1982, Use of neighborhood parks, Master thesis, Department of Civil Engineering & Engineering Informatics, National Taiwan University.

TSAI,PO-LU, 1983, Park System of Taiwan.

CHEN,MING-CHI, 1989, Real estate prices and their movements Factors, Master thesis,Department of Land Economics, National Chengchi University.

YANG,KUO-SHU et al, 1989, Social and behavioral sciences in France.

CHENG,CHI-LIN, 1991, Metropolitan Park System Planning Study Design Guidelines, Construction and Planning Agency of the Interor.

LIN,JEN-HE,HO, 1991, Social and behavioral sciences in France -, Master thesis,Department of Land Economics, National Chengchi University.

LIN,SEN-TIEN, 1991, Capitalization of local public infrastructure effectiveness study.

HUNG,PAO-CHUAN, 1991, Factors affect the premium of residential land in Taipei - A Case Study of four administrative regions, PHD thesis,Department of Land Economics, National Chengchi University.

FAN,CHUI-LU, 1991, Actual transaction prices of real estate, Institute of Urban Planning ,National Chung Hsing University.

HUNG,YI,I-JU, 1992, Private investment in urban parks and the relationship between real estate interests, Graduate institute of Building and Planning, National Taiwan University.

HUANG,WAN-HSIANG, 1994, Neighborhood public facilities and services the price level and housing characteristics of the interaction, PHD thesis,Department of Land Economics, National Chengchi University.

CHEN,HUI-MEI, 1995, Neighborhood parks establish an evaluation model using the following, Master thesis,  Department of Horticulture,National Taiwan University.

CHANG,CHIU-MU, 1996, Park development decision-making Quality Estimate, Master thesis, Department of Civil Engineering & Engineering Informatics, Chung-Hua University.

CHUNG,YI,I-PING, 1996, Taiwan hi-tech spatial analysis and population study of residential relocation, National Science Council Research Project.

Directorate-General of Budget, Accoounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan,R.O.C.(Taiwan), 1997, Years of human resources survey.

1997, Hsinchu City Comprehensive Development Plan, Hsinchu City Government.

1997, Yearbook of the real estate industry in Taiwan.

YANG,CHEN-LUNG, 1997, A Study of House Buying Behavior,Market Segmantation and Promotion Preference, Master thesis, Institute of Industrial Mangement, Chung-Hua University.

Hsinchu City Government, 1998, Hsinchu City Park Executive Development Status Report, Hsinchu City Government.

CHUANG,CHIN-LU, 1998, Study of Influence of the House Demand by Employees from Hsin Chu Science Park on Its Peripheral Real Estate, Master thesis, Institute of  Architecture and Urban Planning , Chung-Hua University.

Lec Grebler& Frank G. Mittebach, 1979, The Inflation of House Price , Los Angeles: University of Calfornia,P.137.

Michael,R.G. and V.K. Smith, 1990, Market segmentation and valuing arnenities with hedonic model: case of hazardous waste sites, Journal of Urban Economics,26:223-242.

More,T.A., T.Steveens and P. G. Allen, 1995, Valuation of Urban parks, Landscape and Urban Planning,15:139-152.

Tyrvainen, Liisa, 1997, The amenity value of the urban forest: an application of the hedonic pricing method, Landscape and Urban Planning,37:2111-222.

Tyrvainen, Liisa and Hannu Vaananen, 1998, The economic value of urban forest amenities: an application of the contingent valuation method, Landscape and Urban Planning,43(1-3):105-118.

Weicher, John C. & Robert H. Zerbst, 1973, The externalities of neighborhood parks :an empirical investigation, Land Economics49:99-104.

William J. Sull, 1995, Community environment , zoning, and the market value of single-family homes, The Journal of Law and Economics,18:535-557.