Volume / Issue
Journal of architecture and plannin Volume 16,2/3
Article The Universality and Invariability of Power Law: A Case of Scales of Natural Disasters in Taiwan
Author Shih-Kung Lai、Cheng-Chung Lu、Yu-Chih Wang

The research explores whether the scales of natural disasters in Taiwan are distributed in terms of a power law, and if they are, explains why. A power law is defined as an inverse relationship between ranks and scales of objects under consideration. Mathematically, this relationship can be depicted as R(x)=ax-b, where x denotes scales in terms of people killed and wounded resulting from disasters; R(x) denotes ranks with one as the largest scale; a symbolizes a constant; and b is an exponential component.  Empirical findings showed that the scales of the natural disasters in Taiwan over the past 100 years indeed follow a power law distribution. Under the observation that the distribution of scales of natural disasters fits a power law, we investigate further its implications and explore possible policies that could change the slope and position of the power law, in order to mitigate disastrous damages. We further suggest that increasing disaster mitigation costs for a certain type of disasters while maintaining the total cost of disaster mitigation will not reduce the disastrous loss and that the government should increase disaster mitigation costs for all types of disasters. The research verifies the universality and invariability of power law in the case of scales of natural disasters. The results could provide insights into disaster mitigation policies.

Keywords Power law, Scales of natural disasters
Pages pp. 99-110

Deng, W.X.., Wu, C.X., Guo, B.Y., and Wu, H.S., 2005, “An Exploration into Classification of Disaster Scales and Response Strategies”, Taipei: Committee of Disaster Prevention of Executive Yuan.

Godschalk, D., Timothy, B., P. Berke, Brower, D. J., and Kaiser, E. J., 1999, “Natural Hazard Mitigation: Recasting Disaster Policy and Planning”, Washington, D. C,: Island Press.

Lai, S.K., 2010, “Seeing through Complexity: Collected Essays on Urban Society in Taiwan”, Taipei: Chan’s Book Inc.

Lee, J.Y., 2001, A study of disastrous communication strategies of the central government in great disastrous events: a case of the 921 earthquake news reports, Unpublished Master Thesis, National Taiwan Normal University.

Mileti, D.S., 1999, “Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States”, Washington, D. C.: The National Academies Press.

Smith, K., 2013, “Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster”, New York: Routledge.


Yu, J.L., Lai, S.K., 2003, “How increasing returns mechanisms form settlement systems: the computer experiments method”, Journal of Architecture and Planning, 4(2): 160-177.

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume 16,2/3
Article A Study on Innovation and Production Network in Traditional Industries Area - A Case of Changhua Cou
Author Tai-Shan Hu、Shu-Ping Yu、Hsiang-Min Chou、Ping-Ching Chia、Hsin-Mei Lo

The past researches were found many different types of networks of high tech industries which gathered in growing place; however, only few studies kept their eyes on the importance of the innovative production networks of conventional industries. The aim of this research was investigated and analyzed the process of innovation forwards innovative production networks of conventional industries that could be based on the policies to redevelop traditional industries. Furthermore, this research analyzed innovative production networks by different developing paths through traditional industries which owned higher intensive knowledge of ChangHua County. In addition to, the study was also constructed the mode and the policy of innovative production networks of traditional industries.

Keywords production networks, traditional industries, innovation
Pages pp. 111-134

Boschma, R.A., 2005, “Proximity and innovation: a critical assessment” Regional Studies, 39(1): 61-74.

Breschi, S., and Malerba, F., 1997, Sectoral Innovation Systems: Technological Regimes, Schumpeterian Dynamics, and Spatial Boundaries, In C. Edquist (ed.) Systems of Innovation: Technologies, Organisations, and Institutions, London: Pinter.

Carlsson, B., and Stankiewicz, R., 1991, On the Nature, Function and Composition of Technological Systems, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 1: 93-118.

Clark, J., and Guy, K., 1998, Innovation and Competitiveness: A Review, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 10(3): 363-395.

Debresson, C., and Amesse, F., 1991, Networks of innovators: a review James S, 2002, Knowledge spillovers and reasons for concentration of innovation SMEs, Urban Studies, 885- 902.

Frank, N., Martin, H., Ron, B., Karl-Johan, L., and Lars, O., 2011, “The Dynamics of Agglomeration Externalities along the Life Cycle of Industries”, Regional Studies, 451:457-466.

Gao, S.J., 1983, “Inspiration Innovation doctrine - Courage, Innovation, Investment, Risk”, Taipei, Common Wealth Magazine.

James, R., 2002, Socioeconomic Background and Higher Education Participation: An analysis of school students’ aspirations and expectations, Commonwealth of Australia.

Lin, K.F., Hu, T.S., Hsieh, H.N., and Chia, P.C., 2012, “Industrial Cluster Formation and Evolution-The Case of Hsinchu Area”, Journal of Architecture and Planning, 13(1): 45-74.

Lo, H.M., 2013 , ”Spatial Dynamics of Industrial Districts in Knowledge Cities: a Case Study of Hsinchu, Taiwan” , Journal of Architecture and Planning, 14(2/3): 145-164.

Lu, T.Y., and Hsu, Y.C., 2011, “A Study of Redevelopment Strategy in Pingtung Industrial Park”, Journal of Architecture and Planning, 10(2)95-121.

Malecki, E., and Oinas P., 1999, Making Connections, technological Learning and Regional Economic Change, Aldershot Ashgate.

Nikulainen, T., 2008, Open Innovation and Nanotechnology: an Opportunity for Traditional Industries, Helsinki: Research Institute of the Finnish Economy, 2008.


Schumpeter, J.A., 1911, The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital Credit, Interest and the Business Cycle.

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume 16,2/3
Article Research of Green Roof Heat Accumulating and Cooling Efficiency in Urban
Author Chiu-Chuan Chen

The purpose of this study was to verify the daytime residential roof greening of the cooling effect, night accumulating of heat effect, thermal conduction and time-lag effect indoors. Set in a residential area in control and experimental groups, and record the ambient temperature, control area, under test, planting mean and the second floor indoor temperature change, descriptive statistical analysis and oneway ANOVA of checks. 

  The results showed that green roofs can indeed noon time reduce the roof of the building surface temperature 10.2-14.2°C. When the maximum cooling of 20.6-26.2°C; the other oneway ANOVA to verify the cooling efficiency, the results show a different monitoring area of solar radiation cooling a significant difference. The 2nd floor indoor cooling temperature is 13.9083, and efficiency is the most significant.

Midnight (24:00) comparative analysis showed that green roofs it can actually improve energy saving when the building roof temperature is 1.6-2.1°C, the maximum be warmed up to 1.9-4.1°C, thus, achieving the accumulation of heat effect.. oneway ANOVA results show the effectiveness of the accumulation heat have differences, which 2nd floor indoor heat preservation 2.2464.

Thermal conduction studies showed the average thermal conduction Q in the test zone is 42.53W and control zone is 73.40W, green roofs can reduce the amount of heat conduction by (42%) to achieve cooling efficiency.

Time-lag effect showed that compared to the control zone, test zone at 16: 05 to16: 15 is the highest indoor temperature (average 23.98) in the indoor environment, green roofs can be delayed about 100 minutes, to avoid the peak hours of electricity consumption, thus, saving air conditioning power consumption.

Overall, this study was to verify the daytime residential roof greening of the cooling effect , night accumulating of heat effect, thermal conduction and time-lag effect indoors , if the building can be applied to the urban area as a green roof can reduce home power consumption ( reducing air conditioning the system uses frequency), initially estimated for energy-savings (48.8%) that economically efficient.

Keywords Green Roof, Accumulating of Heat, Cooling, Energy-saving, Thermal Conduction, Time-lag.
Pages pp. 135-150

Chen C.C., and Lee, S.H., 2013a , “Research of residential area ecological green roof for reduce the heat efficiency in Taichung”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 368-370(2013): 1270-1273.

Chen C.C., Lee S.H., 2013b , “Research of Artificial sites green roof for energy-saving efficiency in Taiwan Taichung”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, 368-370(2013): 1342-1345.

Chen, C.C., Li, C.C., Chen, C.L., Shi, N.H., Lee, V. Q., and Li, S.H. ,2012, “Research of green roof and facade vegetation reduce the heat efficiency(I)”, Journal of Health and Care Science, 1(2): 88-103.

Eumorfopulou, E., and Aravantions, D., 1998, “The contribution of planted roof to the thermal protection of buildings in Greece”, Energy and Buildings, 27: 29-36.

Fang, Z.F. , 2011b, “Research in central Taiwan heating effect of reducing the ecological roof”, Journal of Landscape Architecture, 17(4): 45-62.

Fang, Z.F., 2011a, “Thermal efficiency extensive media and planting of green roofs”, Science & Agriculture, 59: 118-136.

Giridharan, R., Lau, S.S.Y., and Ganesan, S., 2005, “Nocturnal heat island effect in urban residential developments of Hong Kong”, Energy and Buildings, 37: 964-971.

Hien, W.N., and Jusuf, S.K., 2008, “GID-based greenery evaluation on campus master plan”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 84:166-182.

Huang,G. C., 2011, “Green Building of Green Roofs”, Scientific, 160: 48-53

Incropera, F. P., and Dewitt, D.P., 1996, “Fundamenttals of heat and mass transfer”, John Wiley & Sons.

Landsberg, H. E., 1981, The Urban Climate, New York, Academic Press, Inc, 275.

Li, Y.Y., and Zhou, Q.I., , 2006, “Japanese green roof design and technology”, Journal of Architecture, 2: 37-39.

Li, Z.Y., 2008, Introduction of Green roofs: Concepts and Case, Green Roofs Discuss the Promotion of Exchange Information, Taipei, p3-9.

Lien, H.P., 2009, Study of Thermal Effects of the Drought-enduring Plants on Thin-layer Green Roof, Thesis for the Degree of Master, Institute of Horticulture College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture, National Chung Hsing University,Taichung.

Lin, H.T.,1994, Modern human living environment,Hu Bookstore, Taipei.

Lin, H.T.,2003, Hot and Wet Climate of Green Building,Jane's Bookstore, Taipei.

Linn, B.S.,2010, The Cooling Effects of Plant and Green Land, Institute of Horticulture College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture National Taiwan University, Doctoral Dissertation, Taipei.

Mentens, J., Raes, D., Herrmy, M. ,2006, “Green roofs as a tool for solving the rainwater runoff problem in urbanize 21st century?”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 77: 217-226.

Nagase, A., and Dunnett, N., 2010, “Drought tolerance in different vegetation types for extensive green roofs: Effects of watering and diversity”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 97: 318-237.

Niachou, A., Papakonstantinou, K., Santamouris, M., Tsangrassoulis , A., and Mihalakakou, G., 2001, “Analysis of the green roof thermal properties and investigation of its energy performance“, Energy and Buildings, 33: 719-729.

Onmura, S., Matsumoto, M., and Hokoi, S., 2001, “Study on evaporative cooling effect of lawn gardens”, Energy and Buildings, 33:653-666.

Palomo, E., and Barrio, D.,1998, “Analysis of the green roofs cooling potentialin buildings”, Energy and Buildings, 27: 179-193.

Rosenzweig, C., Solecki, W.D., Parshall, L., Chopping, M., Pope, G., and Goldberg, R., 2005, “Characterizing the urben heat island in current and future climates in New Jersey”, Enviormental Hazards, 6: 51-62.

Sendo, T., Kanechi, M., Uno, Y., and Noboru, I., 2010, “Evaluation of Growth and Green Coverage of Ten Ornamental Species for Planting as Urban Rooftop Greening”, Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 79(1): 69-76.

Spala, A., Bagiorgas, H.S., Assimakopoulos, M.N., Kalavrouziotis, J., Matthopoulos, D., and Mihalakakou, G., 2008 , “On the green roof system.Selection, state of the art and energy potential investigation of a system installed in an office building in Athens”, Greece. Renewable Energy, 3(1): 173-177.

Su, R. Z.,2009, Thermal effects of overburden grass roof, Thesis for the Degree of Master, Institute of Urban Development and Architecture National University of Kaohsiung,Kaohsiung.

Takakura, T., Kitade S., and Goto,E., 2000, “Cooling effect of greenery cover over a building”, Energy and Buildings, 31:1-6.

Tang, M.F., Wang, K.,2010, Green Roofs Parametric Study of Thermal Energy Conservation, 2010 Shanghai World Green Roof Conference Proceedings, Shanghai, 136-140.

Tseng, H. F.,2011, The Effect of Indoor Temperature by Different Roof Cooling Systems-Using Pool, Spray and Sprinkling Systems as Examples, Thesis for the Degree of Master, Institute of Architecture and Urban Design, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung.

Voyde, E., Fassman, E., Simcock, R.,2010, “Hydrology of an extensive living roof under sub-tropical climate conditions in Auckland, New Zealand”, Journal of Hydrology, 394: 284-395.

Wong, N.H., Chen, Y., Ong, C.L., and Sia, A., 2003, “Investigation of thermal benefits of rooftop garden in the tropical environment”, Building and Environment, 38: 261-270.

Wong, N.H., Tay, S.F., Wong, R., Ong, C.L., and Sia, A., 2005, Life cycle cost analysis of rooftop gardens in Singapore, Building and Environment,38: 499-509.

Xi, P., Cho, W., and Li, C.Q., 2004, “Urban environmental effects analysis to improve green roofs”, Environmental Protection, 7: 41-44.

Xi, R.M., 2006, Study of Green roof thermal efficiency, Thesis for the Degree of Master, Institute of Architecture and Urban Design, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung.


Zhang, Y.S., Lai, Y.H., and Hou, B.C. ,2009, Green roofs media relations and plants, Carbon Reduction Green Construction Methods Green Roofs and Green Walls Exchanges Discussion and Promotion Exhibition, Taipei, 17-24.

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume 16,2/3
Article An Analysis of the Form of Local Externality
Author Hsin-Ping Chen

Ageneral equilibrium model proposed in Eeckhout (2004) explains Gibrat’s law in growth process and size distribution of cities.  One of the driving forces in the modelis local externality; however there is lack of further exploration of this key driving force. The purpose of this paper is to examine the feature and relation between local externality and the resulted growth process as well as size distribution; this is not discussed in Eeckhout (2004). This paper provides an extension of local externality and finds that the theory could generate proportionate growth of cities and Zipf’s law in its tail only if the size elasticity of production in local externality is a constant. This result shows the condition of the theory in explaining the empirical size distribution of cities which is not examined in Eeckhout (2004). We also finds that an increase of congestion cost will lead to more evenly distributed cities.Moreover, the theory implies that larger technologyshocks lead to larger cities when the size elasticity of production is negative; larger technologyshocks lead to bigger cities if the congesting cost dominates the net local externalities.

Keywords Zipf’s law, Size elasticity of production, JELR12, R23
Pages pp. 151-162

Behrens, K., Duranton, G., and Robert-Nicoud, F., 2014, “Productive cities: Sorting, selection, and agglomeration”, Journal of Political Economy, 122(3): 507-553.

Duranton, G., 2006, “Some foundations for Zipf’s law: Product proliferation and local spillovers”, Regional Science and Urban Economics, 36(4):542-563.

Duranton, G., Diego P., 2014, “The Growth of Cities”, in Philippe A., Steven, N.D., Volume 2: Handbook of Economic Growth, North Holland: Elsevier B.V.

Eeckhout, J., 2004, "Gibrat's law for (all) cities”, American Economic Review, 1429-1451.

Gabaix, X., 1999a, “Zipf’s law for cities: An explanation”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(3):739-767.

Gabaix, X., 1999b, “Zipf’s law and the growth of cities”, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 89(2):129-132.

Gibrat, R., 1931, Les inégalités économiques applications: aux inégalités des richesses, à la concentra-tion des entreprises, aux populations des villes, aux statistiques des familles, etc., d’uneloi nouvelle, la loide l’effet proportionnel, Paris: Librairie du Recueil Sirey.

Giesen, K., Zimmermann, A., and Suedekum, J., 2010, “The size distribution across all cities: Double Pareto lognormal strikes”, Journal of Urban Economics, 68:129-137.

Giesen, K., Suedekum, J., 2012, “The size distribution across all ‘cities’: A unifying approach”, Working Paper, Institut d’Economia de Barcelona (IEB).

González-Val, R., Ramos, A., Sanz-Gracia, F., and Vera-Cabello, M., 2013, “Size distributions for all cities: Which one is best?”, Papers in Regional Science, 10(1111): 12037.

Henderson, J.V., 1974, “The Sizes and Types of Cities”, American Economic Review, 64(4):640-56.

Hsu, W.T., 2012, “Central place theory and city size distribution”, Economic Journal, 122(563):903-932.

Ioannides, Y., and Skouras, S., 2013, “US city size distribution: Robustly Pareto, but only in the tail”, Journal of Urban Economics, 73(1):18-29.

Krugman, P., 1996, “Confronting the mystery of urban hierarchy”, Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 10(4):1120-1171.

Krugman, P., 1996, The Self-organizing economy, Cambridge: Blackwell.

Rossi-Hansberg, E., and Wright, M.L.J. 2007, “Urban structure and growth”, Review of Economic Studies, 74(2):597-624.


Zipf, G.K., 1949, Human behavior and the principle of least effort, Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley Press.

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume 16,2/3
Article Quantile Regression Analysis for the Local Level Housing Affordability-An Example of Households Livi
Author Chich-Ping Hu

Housing is the most important and expensive economic goods for the individual to consume.  When the gap between house price and family income has been widened would not only increase family affordability but also influence urban development negatively.  For the reason that condominium shares the largest proportion among the patterns of community, this research uses the households living in condominiums as the research population. House price to income ratio of family surveyed in this research is used to construct family housing affordability index.  The property and level on quantile housing affordability affected from housing characteristics and neighborhood features are investigated with quantile regression model.  In this research, the ordinary least square method is applied to estimate the independent variables coefficients and the demonstrative result shows that the multicollinearity existed among independent variables and it fails to explain the variables’ heterogeneities.  Afterwards dropping variables with high value of Variance Inflation Factor and operating four inter- quantile regression equations, this research finds that the households with the highest level of housing affordability among both ends of housing affordability had better to select a house in either North District or Shang Shan District with large “dwelling area”, high “floor level”, and more “sanitary and health equipment” to live than the households with the lowest level of housing affordability selected the house with the same characteristics as the ones of the households with the highest level of housing affordability.

Keywords Housing, House Price, Urban Development, Housing Affordability, Quantile Regression
Pages pp. 163-182

Anthony, J., 2003, “The effects of Florida’s growth management act on housing affordability”, Journal of the American Planning Association, 69(3): 282-295.

Bunting, T., Walks, R.A., and Filion, P., 2004, “The uneven geography of housing affordability stress in Canadian metropolitan areas”,Housing Studies, 19(3): 361-393.

Haffner, M.E.A., and Boumeester, H.J.F.M., 2010, “The affordability of housing in the Netherlands: an increasing income Gap between renting and owning?”,.Housing Studies, 25(6): 799-820.

Hu, C.P., 2010, “An Impact Analysis of Housing Prices from the Taiwan High Speed Rail System Opening-an Example of Hsin Chu Station”, Journal of Architecture and Planning, 11(2): 77-88.

Hu, C.P., 2013, “Model for Housing Duality and Household Movement Decision”, Journal of Architecture and Planning, 14(2/3): 131-146.

Lee, W.C., 2014, Research on the Bubble of Condominiums-The Case Study in Taichung City”, Journal of Architecture and Planning, 15(2/3): 155-174.

Lillydahl, J.H., and Singell, L.D., 1987, “The effects of growth management on the housing market: a review of theoretical and empirical evidence”, Journal of Urban Affairs, 9(1): 63-77.

Mak, S.W.K., Choy, L.H.T., and Ho, W.K.O., 2007,“Privatization, housing conditions and affordability in the People’s Republic of China”, .Habitat International, 31(2):177-192.

Stone, M. E., 2006, “A housing affordability standard for the UK”, .Housing Studies, 21(4): 453-476.

Suhaida, M.S., Tawil, N.M., Hamzah, N., Che-Ani, A.I., Basri, H., and Yuzainee, M.Y., 2011, “Housing affordability: a conceptual for house price index”, .Procedia Engineering, 20: 346-353.

Weitz, J., 1999, “From quiet revolution to smart growth: state growth management programs”, .Journal of Planning Literature, 14(2): 267-290.

Wood, G., Watson, R., and Flatau, P., 2006, “Low income housing tax credit programme impacts on housing affordability in Australia: microsimulation model estimates”, Housing Studies, 21(3): 361-380.

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume 16,2/3
Article Living with Water Linking Spatial Planning: A Study in Tseng-Wen River Basin
Author Hsueh-Sheng Chang、Chin-Hsien Liao

The purpose of this article lies living with water linking spatial planning, how to analyses the interests of water environmental in Ecoregions land use strategies, also by using hydrology toolset and explore spatial analysis, a non-parametric benchmarking technique to assess water environment from land-using point of view. This study adopted Tseng-Wen River in Tainan as the study area. The analytical results demonstrated that changing of agricultural land-using and Land for Irrigation and Drainage into others have been decreased 5,658 ha for water environment efficiency and caused loss functions of water retention. As to the space, both upstream and downstream are the most serious affected areas which indicated that hilly land development influences the water runoff. This article further uses Ecoregions infiltration basin, percolation trench, and bioretention to construct water environment system’s initial form. Those findings may serve as basis for establishing future land-use indicators and decision-making references for concerned government agencies.

Keywords Living with water, Land use change, hydrology toolset, Ecoregions
Pages pp. 183-200

Bailey, R.G., 1983, “Delineation of Ecosystem Regions”, Environmental Management, 7(4):365-373.

Bronstert, A., Niehoff, D., and Burger, G.., 2002, Effects of climate and land-use change on storm runoff generation: present knowledge and modelling capabilities”, Hydrological Processes, 16(2): 509-529.

Brown, R.R., Keath, N., and Wong, T., 2008, “Transitioning to the water sensitive city: historical, current and future transition states”, In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, 31 August–5 September, CD-ROM.

Chan, S.C., Sun, C.H., Hsu, M.L., and Lee, C.-T., 2004,“Flood Estimation Using Neural Networks Based on Physiographic Features of Watersheds”, Journal of Chinese Soil and Water Conservation, 35(1): 1-16.

Chan, S.L., Huang, S.L., and Wang, S.-H., 2003,“On the Risk Zoning of Flood Hazard in Taipei Areas”, City and Planning, 30(4), 263-280.

Chen, L.C., and Chen, H.L., 2007,“Exploring Flooding Vulnerability during Urban Developing Process: Learning from the Formation of Taipei Basin Floods”, City and Planning, 34(3): 293-315.

Chen, S.T., Tseng, H.W., Lin, C.Y., Yang, T.C., and Yu, P.S., 2011,“Hydrological Drought in Tseng-Wen Reservoir Basin under Climate Change Scenarios”, Journal of Chinese Agricultural Engineering, 57(3): 44-60.

Chen, Y.C., and Sung, Q. C., 1999,“Geomorphological Provinces of Taiwan Based on Fractal Model”, Environment And Worlds, (3): 1-15.

Chiou, C.R., Liang, Y. C., Lai, Y.J., and Huang, M.Y., 2004,“A Study of Delineation and Application of the Climatic Zones in Taiwan”, Journal of Taiwan Georaphic Information Science, (1): 41-62.

Chiou, C.R., Pan, H.L., Yeh, M.M., and Huang, K.J., 2007,“Zoning Windbreak Forest in Kinmen Area. Quarterly”, Jounal of Chinese Forestry, 40(2): 229-240.

Fábos, J.G., 2004, “Greenway Planning in the United States: Its Origins and Recent Case Studies”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 68(2-3): 321-42.

Forman, R.T.T., 1995, “Land Mosaics--The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions”, Cambridge University Press.

Haase, D., and Nuissl, H., 2007, “Does urban sprawl drive changes in the water balance and policy? The case of Leipzig, G., 1870-2003”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 80(1-2): 1-13.

Huang, M.C., and Lai, K.L., 1986,“Applied Stormwater Management Calculating Methods for Land Use Planning”, City and Planning, 13: 173-198.

Huang, S.L., and Lai, H.Y., 1999,“Ecological Energetic Flows and Land Uses of Taipei Basin-()Ecological Energetic Zonation”, City and Planning, 26(1): 1-17.

Huang, S.L.,1984, “Urban stormwater management integrated land use planning”, City and Planning, 11:105-133.

Huang, S.L.,1986,“Environmental Carrying Capacity Analysis and Growth Management”, National Chung Hsing University Report.

Interlandi, S.J., and Crockett, C.S., 2003, “Recent water quality trends in the Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA: a preliminary assessment of the relative influences of climate, river discharge and suburban development”, Water Research, 37(8): 1737-1748.

Jongman, R.H.G., Kulvik, M., and Kristiansen, I., 2004, “European ecological networks and greenways”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 68(2-3): 305-319.

Li, H.C., Yang, H.H., Liao, K.M., and Shaw, D.G., 2009,“Constructing Social Vulnerability Index of Flood Disaster”, Journal of Architecture and Planning, 10(3): 163-182.

Lin, T.P., Ho, Y.F., and Yang, H.M.., 2005,“Prediction and Analysis of Percentage of Impervious Area in Taichung City”, City and Planning, 32(3): 333-354.

Lin, Y.P., Hong, N.M., Wu, P.J., Wu, C.F., and Verburg, P.H., 2007, “Impacts of land use change scenarios on hydrology and land use patterns in the Wu-Tu watershed in Northern Taiwan”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 80(1-2): 111-126.

Liu, Y.B., and De Smedt, F., 2005, “Flood modeling for complex terrain using GIS and remote sensed information”, Water Resources Management, 19(5): 605-624.

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Shankman, D., and Liang, Q.L., 2003, “Landscape changes and increasing flood frequency in China's Poyang Lake region”, Professional Geographer, 55(4): 434-445.

Su, H.J., 2004, “Vegetation Diversity and Diversified Approaches of Classification”, Journal of the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University, 18(3): 207-219.

van der Velde, G., Leuven, R.S.E.W., Ragas, A.M.J., and Smits, A.J.M., 2006, “Living rivers: trends and challenges in science and management”, Hydrobiologia, 565: 359-367.

von Haaren, C., and Reich, M., 2006, “The German way to greenways and habitat networks”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 76(1-4): 7-22.

Wang, Y.T., Li, H.C., Hsieh, L.S., Lin, S.R., and Kuo, M.C., 2010,“The Impact Evaluation of Flood and Slopeland Disaster-prone area in Chiayi County”, Journal of Chinese Soil and Water Conservation, 41(3): 255-263.

Water Resources Agency, 2013,“Master plan for Comprehensive Management of the Zengwun River Basin”.


Wu, X.D., Yu, D.P., Chen, Z.Y., and Wilby, R.L., 2012, “An evaluation of the impacts of land surface modification, storm sewer development, and rainfall variation on waterlogging risk in Shanghai”, Natural Hazards, 63(2): 305-323. 

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