Volume / Issue
Journal of architecture and plannin Volume13, 2/3
Article An Empirical and Exploratory Study of the Physical Differences between Good and Bad Feng Shui Enviro
Author Ke-Tsung Han,Chien-Lin Lo

The reliability and validity of Feng Shui has been questioned by modern sciences. In terms of validity, are there measurable physical differences between good and bad Feng Shui environments? Han and Hong (2008) documented 9 good and 9 bad Feng Shui sites in Taiwan. This study further examined if there were any measurable physical differences between these environments, which had been validated by Feng Shui experts. This study utilized site inventories and second-hand information to examine geographical features, soils, meteorology, negative ions, magnetic fields, and electromagnetic waves. Statistical analyses included X2 tests, independent t tests, one-factor ANOVAs, and effect sizes. The results indicated that there were differences between the good and the bad Feng Shui environments in the geographic features (distances from Xue to Ging Long, Xuan Wu, and the river; the width of the river; and the ratio of Ging Long to Bai Hu), meteorology (barometric pressure and humidity), and negative ions. These physical differences were congruent with Feng Shui theories and were influential with living quality and human well-being. Therefore, it could be preliminarily concluded that Feng Shui was not completely without any validity.

Keywords effect size, geographical feature, meteorology, negative ion, validity
Pages pp. 95-118

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume13, 2/3
Article Dream Pursuing: A Cultural Explanation for the Size of Asian Megacities
Author Hai-Feng Hu

With the development of human civilization, the extent of urbanization rises. There are two paradigms of city formation and size. One is the competitive model of large-scale land developers operating in national land markets, and the other is the self-organization model of agglomeration. Usually, researchers use the economies of agglomeration and scale to explain urban population growth. On the other hand, the increasing costs along with urban expansion constrain the growth of city. Thus the dynamic city size is determined by the net effect of positive and negative influences. In 2011, there are 26 megacities which their populations are over ten millions all over the world. Especially, 15 of them, including the top six, are in Asia, and the sizes of most Asian megacities are continuously growing over time. The phenomenon implies that the application of current theory regarding city size may have some gap in Asian megacities. This research attempts to fill the gap by bringing the “dreaming pursuing” factor of immigrants into the analysis of giant Asian megacity size. And the cultural explanation could also illustrate the variation of population density between East and West.

Keywords urbanization, city size, megacity, dream pursuing
Pages pp. 119-136

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume13, 2/3
Article The interactive relationships and development effects among the KIBS firms and their clients in Taiw
Author Yao-Kuang Lee,Tai-Shan Hu,Su-Li Chang,Ping-Ching Chia,Hsin-Mei Lo

In the last decade, relevant studies have gradually emphasized one of the major trends impacting developed economies, that is, the increasing importance and continuing expansion of KIBS in current economic development. Therefore, this study first attempted to explore the roles and functions of KIBS in the evolution of an area innovation system. Secondly, this study analyzed the actual interactions between KIBS firms and their clients, and the role difference of KIBS by examining the evolution of the local innovation systems separately centered in Hsinchu and Tainan Science-Based Industrial Park in Taiwan. Based on the result of this study, the findings are that the cumulative interactions led to increasing demand for and reliance on KIBS, prompted the emergence of needs for specialized support in many different functions, and resulted in gradually more important roles of KIBS firms in the industrial interface, that is, gradually transform into influential partners of their clients, and not merely knowledge providers.

Keywords Knowledge intensive business services, technology-based firm, local innovation system, evolution
Pages pp. 137-164

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume13, 2/3
Article A preliminary study of emergence and development from the regional innovation systems to intelligent
Author Hung-Nien Hsieh,Tai-Shan Hu,Ping-Ching Chia,Chang-Yu Hou,Hsin-Mei Lo

This study was based upon past researches. First of all, the study is that organizes literature in perspectives of the conceptual evolution of intelligent city-region and diversified types and transformation of the connection between intelligent city-region and innovation systems. The main purpose of first stage  is to understand what kind of triggering factors has formed original type, molding type, evolutional type, and transforming type of intelligent city-region. According to the result of first stage, make some change concepts and plan for follow-up study. This paper also attempts to confirm and explain the importance of intelligent environment currently, role-playing in the global innovation networks, and to explore the intelligent environment and governance .

Keywords Regional innovation system, intelligent city-region, intelligent environment, innovation networks
Pages pp. 165-188

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume13, 2/3
Article A Study of Transitional landscaping modes and preferences for the urban vacant land
Author Yen-Hsi Li

The vacant land of urban planning area is unused because of the lack of the budgeted for construction; therefore, it causes the problem of the waste of space, weeds, improper use, and visual impact and becomes a breeding ground for crime. The landscape beautifying of these vacant land is temporary, so the landscape beautifying modes required considering three main principles: 1. low constructional costs, 2. low maintenance, 3. high reusable facilities. According to the principles, the present study considered the safe, functional, aesthetics and ecological factors in order to develop 10 kinds of landscape modes by using the visual simulation. Moreover, this study also explored people's preferences for these modes, as well as the reasons for their preferences. According to research results, the respondents’ preferences for landscape beautifying modes first is two kinds of wild flowers mixed planting model, the next is sequences of ground cover and the most dislike is gravel pavement. Respondents living area almost does not significantly affect the landscape cognition and preference, only a professional background were significant differences in the cognitive level of aesthetic, security, function, nature and preferences.

Keywords The urban vacant land, Transitional landscaping, Perceived naturalness
Pages pp. 189-202

Lee, S-H., Chang, S-J., & Lin, N-T., “The Recreational Motivation and Safety Cognition of Visitors in Taichung Metropolitan Park at Night. ”, Journal of Landscape, 12(3): 21-40.

Chang, H-W., & Li, S-F., 2001, “A Study on the Reuse of Mined Land-Lessons from the U.K..”, Journal of Architecture & Planning, 2(2): 96-112.

Cañas, I., Ayuga, E., and Ayuga, F., 2009, “A contribution to the assessment of scenic quality of landscapes based on preferences expressed by the public”, Land Use Policy, 26: 1173-1181.

Chen, B., Adimo, C. A., and Bao, Z., 2009, “Assessment of aesthetic quality and multiple functions of urban green space from the users’ perspective: The case of Hangzhou Flower Garden, China”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 93: 76-82.

Cheng, Z., Richmond, D. S., Salminen, S. O., and Grewal, P. S., 2008, “Ecology of urban lawns under three common management programs”, Urban Ecosystems, 11: 177-195.

Gobster, P. H., Nassauer, J. I., Daniel, T. C., and Fry, G., 2007, “The shared landscape: what does aesthetics have to do with ecology?”, Landscape Ecology, 22: 959-972.

Ishii, H. T., and Manabe, T., 2010, “Integrating ecological and cultural values toward conservation and utilization of shrine/temple forests as urban green space in Japanese cities”, Landscape Ecological Engineering, 6: 307-315.

Jorgensen, A., 2011, “Beyond the view: Future directions in landscape aesthetics research”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 100: 353-355.

Junker, J., and Buchecker, M., 2008, “Aesthetic preferences versus ecological objectives in river restorations”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 85: 141-154.

Lindemann-Matthies, P., Junge, X., and Matthies, D., 2010, “The influence of plant diversity on people’s perception and aesthetic appreciation of grassland vegetation”, Biological Conservation, 143: 195-202.

Manuel, P. M., 2003, “Cultural perceptions of small urban wetlands: cases from the  Halifax regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, Canada”, Wetlands, 23(4): 921-940.

Özgüner, H., Kendle, A. D., and Bisgrove, R. J., 2007, “Attitudes of landscape professionals towards naturalistic versus formal urban landscapes in the UK”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 81: 34-45.

Ode, A., Fry, G., Tveit, M. S., Messager, P., and Miller, D., 2009, “Indicators of perceived naturalness as drivers of landscape preference”, Journal of Environmental Management, 90: 375-383.

Sevenant, M., and Antrop, M., 2009, “Cognitive attributes and aesthetic preferences in assessment and differentiation of landscapes”, Journal of Environmental Management, 90: 2889-2899.

Tveit, M., Ode, A., andFry, G., 2006, “Key concepts in a framework for analyzing visual landscape character”, Landscape Research, 31(3): 229-255.

Tveit, M. S., 2009, “Indicators of visual scale as predictors of landscape preference; a comparison between groups”, Journal of Environmental Management, 90: 2882-2888.

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Journal of architecture and plannin Volume13, 2/3
Article Pareto Coefficient in Income Distribution
Author Hsin-Ping Chen

The distribution of income among countries is not symmetrical; rather it is close to Pareto type distribution. It shows consistent bi-modal shape between 1980 and 2007; and shifts to the original Pareto distribution after global financial crisis since 2008. A bi-modal type world income distribution implies a more severe inequality situation between groups of countries rather than among countries. The traditional inequality indexes measured as a whole is an aggregate result. Ignoring the shape of income distributions and difference between groups may overlook some essential features. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the world country income distribution considering its true distribution: bi-modal shape. We suggest to classify countries considering its bi-modal distribution and to estimate the Pareto coefficient of each groups as a complement measure of world income inequality.

The result shows that the Pareto coefficient of higher income group is much larger than that of lower income group. Changes of inequality within two groups have significantly different or even opposite directions. The relation between income growth and inequality in the higher income group demonstrates quite different result from the lower income group. And further, the direction of the influences of the mean income on various inequality indexes are opposite between two groups.  This study shows that income distributions between two groups possess distinctive features; to measure and discuss the inequality matters as a whole without considering the possible differences between groups may lead to a vague or biased result.

Keywords Bi-modal income distribution, Inequality, Pareto coefficient
Pages pp. 203-226

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